Communication Disorders
Speech language and hearing information

With early help by speech language therapy many children can go to develop good

learning and literacy skills


They considered holding him back a year, then they discovered communication disorder was already doing that…

Imagine entering a classroom for the first time only to understand just a fraction of what your teacher says. Or, knowing every answer to every question but being too afraid of your own speech to answer. Speech Language and Hearing problem can be significant roadblocks to student's education. Which is why early identification and support for communication disorders are essential before your child enter school .with this early help ,many children can go on to develop good learning and literacy skills. So be sure your child has the speech language and hearing abilities to succeed in school.


Here is a checklist that you can follow to determine if your child's speech and language

skills are developing on schedule. Anything that is checked "no "need for the consultation

to a Speech Language Pathologist.

Birth to 5 months
Reacts to loud sounds.
Turns head toward a sound source.
Watches your face when you speak.
Vocalizes pleasure and displeasure sounds (laughs, giggles, cries, or fusses).
Makes noise when talked to.

6 - 11 months Yes No
Understands "no-no".
Babbles (says "ba-ba-ba" or "ma-ma-ma").
Tries to communicate by actions or gestures.
Tries to repeat your sounds.

12 - 17 months Yes No
Attends to a book or toy for about two minutes.
Follows simple directions accompanied by gestures.
Answers simple questions nonverbally.
Points to objects, pictures, and family members.
Says two to three words to label a person or object (pronunciation may not be clear).
Tries to imitate simple words.

18 - 23 months Yes No
Enjoys being read to.
Follows simple commands without gestures.
Points to simple body parts such as "nose."
Understands simple verbs such as "eat," "sleep."
Correctly pronounces most vowels and n, m, p, h, especially in the beginning of syllables and short words. Also begins to use other speech sounds.
Says 8 to 10 words (pronunciation may still be unclear).
Asks for common foods by name.
Makes animal sounds such as "moo."
Starting to combine words such as "more milk."
Begins to use pronouns such as "mine."

2 - 3 years Yes No
Knows about 50 words at 24 months.
Knows some spatial concepts such as "in," "on."
Knows pronouns such as "you," "me," "her."
Knows descriptive words such as "big," "happy."
Says around 40 words at 24 months.
Speech is becoming more accurate but may still leave off ending sounds. Strangers may not be able to understand much of what is said.
Answers simple questions.
Speaks in two to three word phrases.
Uses question inflection to ask for something (e.g., "My ball?").
Begins to use plurals such as "shoes" or "socks" and regular past tense verbs such as "jumped."

3 - 4 years Yes No
Groups objects such as foods, clothes, etc.
Identifies colors.
Uses most speech sounds but may distort someof the more difficult sounds such as l, r, s, sh,ch, y, v, z, th. These sounds may not be fully mastered until age 7 or 8.
Uses consonants in the beginning, middle, and ends of words. Some of the more difficult consonants may be distorted, but attempts to say them.
Strangers are able to understand much of what is said.
Able to describe the use of objects such as "fork," "car," etc.
Has fun with language. Enjoys poems and recognizes language absurdities such as, "Is that an elephant on your head?"
Expresses ideas and feelings rather than just talking about the world around him or her.
Uses verbs that end in "ing," such as "walking," "talking."
Answers simple questions such as "What do you do when you are hungry?"
Repeats sentences.

4 - 5 years Yes No
Understands spatial concepts such as "behind," "next to."
Understands complex questions.
Speech is understandable but makes mistakes pronouncing long, difficult, or complex words such as "hippopotamus."
Says about 200 - 300 different words.
Uses some irregular past tense verbs such as "ran," "fell."
Describes how to do things such as painting a picture.
Defines words.
Lists items that belong in a category such as animals, vehicles, etc.
Answers "why" questions.

5 years Yes No
Understands more than 2,000 words.
Understands time sequences (what happened first, second, third, etc.).
Carries out a series of three directions.
Understands rhyming.
Engages in conversation.
Sentences can be 8 or more words in length.
Uses compound and complex sentences.
Describes objects.
Uses imagination to create stories.

What treatments/interventions are effective in improving spoken

language and communication in children with Autism?
Laura Schreibman: Behavioral Interventions
Applied behavioral analyses (ABA) encompasses classic discrete trial training (which, though effective, may be associated with lack of generalization, spontaneous use of language or "robotic"‘responding). Due to these issues, more naturalistic behavioral interventions developed (which share common components (child-adult interactions in more loosely structure environments; child initiation and choice of materials; explicit prompting of target behavioral; reinforcement for attempts to respond as well as correct responses).
NIH Workshop on Nonverbal School-Aged Children with Autism    
April 13 – April 14, 2010
Rockville, Maryland
Sponsored by:
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
National Institute of Mental Health
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development



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